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Nano-Technology Explained | Definition, Introduction, Advantages & Uses

Learn everything about Nano-Technology


NanoTechnology is a technology that involves applying science, engineering and technology at the level of 10^-9 of a meter.

NanoTechnology is a technology that involves applying science, engineering and technology at the level of 10^-9 of a meter. It finds its applications in many areas and it is cost effective also.

Evolution of Nanotechnology:
We already know that atom is the smallest particle which means indivisible. Elements are collection of atoms. For example, water is a element that is made of one hydrogen atom and two oxygen atoms.

Here, the chemical reactions help in joining of atoms to make elements. Note that, all bulk materials are made of atoms.

Nanoparticles are bigger than atoms and their width, diameter, or length is 1-100 nanometers. Using electron microscopes, nanoparticles and nanomaterials can be seen. So scientists and researchers started exploring ways of using nanoparticles can be used in many industries and started revolutionizing the world.

Various materials made using Nanotechnology:

Various types of materials can be made using nanotechnology.

Nanopowders size range from tens to hundreds of nanometers which can be used to synthetic bones, medical drugs. Also, they can be used in plastics that are resistant to UV light.

Nanotubes are cylindrical structures that are made of single or multiple layer of atoms. These are very popular and used in making electronic circuits, mechanical gears. Nanotubes are hollow in nature.

Nanowires are also cylindrical structures similar to nanotubes except that nanowires are not hollow. Nanowires are suitable for making electronic devices and chips.

Nanomembranes are another form of another material used to filter molecules or gases. These allow some particles to pass through them and mat generate some chemical compounds. Molecules of specific size can be filtered using nanomembranes.


Advantages of Nanotechnology in various industries:

Electronics Industry:
Nanotechnology can revolutionize the electronic industry in following ways:
  • In communication industry it can be used to make small, portable systems that can store a large amount of information
  • Useful in making flash memory chips, antimicrobial coatings on the keyboard, mouse and cell phone castings etc
  • Can design smart cards, RFID’s, flexible displays for e-book readers
  • Organic Light-emitting diodes that have bright power and long lifetime can be prepared
  • Can make Quantum computers, Magnetic random access memory, nanodiodes and nanotransistors
  • Also useful in reducing the size of transistors in Integrated circuits.

Medical Industry:

Nanotechnology helps researchers to find many interesting things that helps people to cure from diseases in easy way. Some of them are as below:
  • Nanorobots can be developed using nanotechnology and injecting them into body helps in repairing body cells
  • Drug delivery becomes easy with the use of nanotechnology
  • Timely delivery of drugs can be accomplished with nanotechnology
  • Defective genes can be replaced easily with help of nanotechnology
  • Harmful bacteria in the body can be killed by injecting nanogold particles and infrared light

Food Industry:

Nanotechnology in food industry helps people to protect food, preserve food. Some applications of nanotechnology can be seen as below:
  • Presence of E-coli bacteria in food can be found
  • Antimicrobial packaging for food items can be prepared
  • Food products can be tagged with the help of nanobarcodes
  • Nano carbohydrate particles can be used to identify and kill bacteria
  • Nanotechnology can also be used to preserve food

Automobile Industry:

Nanotechnology in automobile industry can benefit the environment and common people in following ways:
    • Using nanotechnology in cars improve fuel consumption and engine efficiency
    • Making tires of automotive vehicles using nanotechnology helps in longer usage of tires
    • It can also be used to improve the battery performance of vehicles
  • Nano Coating applied to metal parts of vehicles prevent abrasion and improve their lifetime
  • Nanotechnology also reduces the size of metal parts used in vehicles

Civil Engineering:

Using nanocoating on the buildings, it provides the following advantages
  • Mixing Nano SiO2 in concrete improves the compressive strength of the concrete
  • Nanotechnology can be used to make low carbon, high-performance steel
  • Using nano TiO2 as the coating on the surface of the building makes it hydrophilic, anti- fraffiti
  • Nanotechnology can be used to analyze the performance of the structure
  • Using nanotechnology coatings on the surface of buildings can make them fire resistant

Other Uses:

Nanotechnology also plays a major role in many industry and helps common people in many ways. Some of them are listed below:
  • Nanotechnology can be used to make wrinkle and stain resistant clothes
  • Nanotechnology can be used to clean the water to remove impurities
  • Nanomaterials can be used as catalysts in chemical reactions
  • Nanotechnology can be used to make sunscreen creams

Example products Developed using nanotechnology:

  • SGG Nano is a glass product developed by Saint Gobain that is energy efficient and has thermal insulation
  • TopChim is a nano product that is used for packaging in the food industry
  • FluidCrystal NP is a nano product developed by Camurus that is used as drug delivery agent in Medical Industry


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